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Ihabhu le-USB


Isikhathi sokuthumela: Sep-01-2021

Ihabhu le-USB idivayisi enweba imbobo eyodwa ye-Universal Serial Bus (USB) ibe amaningana ukuze kube nezimbobo eziningi ezitholakalayo zokuxhuma amadivayisi kusistimu yomsingathi, efana nentambo yamandla.Wonke amadivayisi axhunywe ngehabhu le-USB abelana ngomkhawulokudonsa otholakala kuleyo hubhu.

Amahabhu e-USB avamise ukwakhelwa okokusebenza njengamakesi ekhompyutha, amakhibhodi, iziqapha, noma amaphrinta.Uma idivayisi enjalo inezimbobo eziningi ze-USB, zonke zivame ukuvela kuhabhu ye-USB eyodwa noma amabili angaphakathi kunokuba imbobo ngayinye ibe nokujikeleza kwe-USB okuzimele.

Amahabhu e-USB ahlukene ngokomzimba afika ngezindlela eziningi ezihlukahlukene: kusukela emabhokisini angaphandle (abukeka afana ne-Ethernet noma ihabhu lenethiwekhi), kuya kumiklamo emincane engaxhunywa ngqo embotsheni ye-USB (bona isithombe "somklamo ohlangene").Amahabhu "ekhebula elifushane" ngokuvamile asebenzisa ikhebula ebalulekile engu-6-intshi (15 cm) ukude kancane ihabhu elincane kude nokuminyana kwembobo kanye nokwandisa inombolo yezimbobo ezitholakalayo.

Cishe wonke amakhompyutha esimanjemanje e-Laptop/notebook afakelwe izimbobo ze-USB, kodwa ihabhu le-USB langaphandle lingahlanganisa amadivaysi amaningana ansuku zonke (njengegundane, ikhibhodi noma iphrinta) ibe ihabhu elilodwa ukuze unike amandla okunamathiselwe kwesinyathelo esisodwa nokususwa kwawo wonke amadivaysi.

Amanye amahabhu e-USB angase asekele ukulethwa kwamandla (PD) ukuze ashaje ibhethri yekhompuyutha ephathekayo, uma izinika amandla futhi iqinisekisiwe ukwenza kanjalo, kodwa ingase kuthiwe yisiteshi sokumisa esilula ngenxa yesimo esifanayo sokudinga uxhumano olulodwa kuphela ukushaja ibhethri. futhi uxhume ama-peripherals.

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Isakhiwo somzimba

Inethiwekhi ye-USB yakhiwe kusukela kumahabhu e-USB axhunywe ezansi komfula kumachweba we-USB, wona ngokwawo angase asuke kumahabhu e-USB.Amahabhu e-USB anganweba inethiwekhi ye-USB afike ezingeni eliphezulu lezimbobo ezingu-127.Ukucaciswa kwe-USB kudinga ukuthi amahabhu anamandla ebhasi (okungenziwa) angaxhunywanga ochungechungeni kwamanye amahabhu anamandla ebhasi.

Ngokuya ngomthengisi nokuklama, izimbobo ze-USB zivame ukuhlukanisiwe.Ngenxa yalokho, ukuxhuma idivayisi endaweni eyodwa kungase kuvimbe ngokoqobo imbobo eseduze, ikakhulukazi uma ipulaki ingeyona ingxenye yekhebula kodwa iyingxenye yedivayisi efana ne-USB flash drive.Amalungu afanayo avundlile amasokhethi avundlile angase abe lula ukuwenza, kodwa angabangela kuphela izimbobo ezimbili kwezine ukuthi zisebenziseke (kuye ngokuthi ububanzi bepulaki).

Amalungu afanayo embobo lapho umumo wembobo uncike kakhulu kuhlelo lwamalungu afanayo ngokuvamile anezinkinga ezimbalwa zokuvinjwa."Ingwane" noma "i-squid" hubs yangaphandle (enesokhethi ngayinye ekugcineni kwekhebula emfushane kakhulu, ngokuvamile cishe amayintshi angu-2 (5 cm) ubude), noma amahabhu "enkanyezi" (imbobo ngayinye ibheke ohlangothini oluhlukile, njengoba kuboniswe esithombeni. ) gwema le nkinga ngokuphelele.

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Ukulinganiselwa kobude

Izintambo ze-USB zikhawulelwe kumamitha angu-3 (amafidi angu-10) kumadivayisi anesivinini esiphansi se-USB 1.1.Ihabhu ingasetshenziswa njengesiphindaphinda se-USB esisebenzayo ukuze kunwetshwe ubude bekhebula bufike kumamitha angu-5 (amafidi angu-16) ubude ngesikhathi.Amakhebuli asebenzayo (amahabhu embobo eyodwa ayisixhumi ayisipesheli) enza umsebenzi ofanayo, kodwa njengoba anamandla ebhasi, amahabhu e-USB aphuma ngaphandle angase adingeke kwamanye amasegimenti.

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Amandla

Aihabhu elinamandla ebhasi (ihabhu ye-passive)iyihabhu edonsa wonke amandla ayo kusixhumi esibonakalayo se-USB sekhompuyutha yokusingatha.Ayidingi uxhumano lwamandla oluhlukile.Kodwa-ke, amadivaysi amaningi adinga amandla amaningi kunale ndlela engahlinzeka ngayo futhi ngeke asebenze kulolu hlobo lwehabhu.Kungase kufiseleke ukusebenzisa ihabhu elinamandla ebhasi elinama-hard disk angaphandle azishayelayo, njengoba i-hard disk ingase ingajiki phansi lapho ikhompuyutha icisha noma ingena kumodi yokulala kuyilapho isebenzisa ihabhu elizishayelayo kusukela isilawuli se-hard disk. izoqhubeka nokubona umthombo wamandla ezimbobeni ze-USB.

Amandla kagesi e-USB anikezwa ngamayunithi angu-100 mA kuze kufike ku-500 mA ngembobo ngayinye.Ngakho-ke, ihabhu elinamandla lebhasi elithobelayo alikwazi ukuba nezimbobo ezingaphezulu kwezine eziya ezansi nomfula futhi ayikwazi ukunikeza amayunithi angaphezu kwamane angu-100 mA wamanje esewonke kumadivayisi ahamba ngaphansi komfula (njengoba ihabhu idinga iyunithi eyodwa ngokwayo).Uma idivayisi idinga amayunithi amaningi wamanje kunokuba imbobo exhunywe kuyo ikwazi ukuhlinzeka, isistimu yokusebenza ngokuvamile ibika lokhu kumsebenzisi.
Ngokuphambene, aihabhu elizishayelayo (ihabhu elisebenzayo)ithatha amandla ayo kuyunithi yokuphakelwa kwamandla yangaphandle futhi inganikeza amandla aphelele (afika ku-500 mA) kuzo zonke izimbobo.Amahabhu amaningi angasebenza njengamahabhu ahamba ngebhasi noma asebenza ngokwawo.
Kodwa-ke, kunezindawo eziningi ezingahambisani nemithetho emakethe ezizimemezela kubasingathi njengezinamandla okuzenzela ngaphandle kokuthi zihamba ngamabhasi ngempela.Ngokulinganayo, kunenqwaba yemishini engahambisani nemithetho esebenzisa ngaphezu kwe-100 mA ngaphandle kokumemezela leli qiniso.Lawa mahubhu namadivayisi avumela ukuguquguquka okwengeziwe ekusetshenzisweni kwamandla (ikakhulukazi, amadivaysi amaningi asebenzisa ngaphansi kakhulu kuka-100 mA futhi izimbobo eziningi ze-USB zinganikezela ngaphezu kuka-500 mA ngaphambi kokuvala ukulayishwa ngokweqile), kodwa kungenzeka izinkinga zamandla okunzima ukuzixilonga.

Amanye amahabhu azenzela amandla awanikezi amandla anele okushayela umthwalo ongu-500 mA kuzo zonke izimbobo.Isibonelo, amahabhu amaningi embobo ayisikhombisa anokunikezwa kwamandla okungu-1 A, kuyilapho empeleni izimbobo eziyisikhombisa zingadonsa ubukhulu obungu-7 x 0.5 = 3.5 A, kanye namandla ehabhu ngokwayo.Abaklami bacabanga ukuthi umsebenzisi cishe uzoxhuma amadivayisi amaningi anamandla aphansi futhi eyodwa noma amabili kuphela adinga u-500 mA ogcwele.Ngakolunye uhlangothi, ukupakishwa kwamanye amahabhu azenzela amandla kusho ngokusobala ukuthi mangaki amachweba angashayela umthwalo ogcwele we-500 mA ngesikhathi esisodwa.Isibonelo, iphakheji yehabhu enezimbobo eziyisikhombisa ingase ithi isekela ubuningi bemishini emine yokulayisha ngokugcwele.
Amahabhu anamandla amakhuluamahabhu angasebenza njengamahabhu ahamba ngamabhasi kanye nezizihambela ngokwawo.Bangakwazi ukushintsha ngokuzenzakalelayo phakathi kwamamodi kuye ngokuthi ukunikezwa kwamandla okuhlukile kuyatholakala noma cha.Nakuba ukusuka ekusebenzeni okunamandla ebhasi ukuya kokuzihambela ngokwawo akudingi ukuxoxisana ngokushesha nomsingathi, ukusuka ekusebenzeni okunamandla okuzishayela wena kuye kosebenzisa amandla ebhasi kungase kubangele ukuthi uxhumo lwe-USB lumiswe kabusha uma amadivayisi axhunyiwe ayecelwe ngaphambilini amandla angaphezu kwalawo atholakala ebhasini- imodi enikwe amandla.

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Isivinini

Ukuvumela amadivayisi anesivinini esiphezulu (i-USB 2.0) ukuthi asebenze ngemodi yawo eshesha kakhulu, wonke amahabhu phakathi kwemishini nekhompyutha kufanele abe isivinini esikhulu.Imishini enesivinini esiphezulu kufanele ibuyele kusivinini esigcwele (i-USB 1.1) uma ixhunywe kuhabhu yesivinini esigcwele (noma ixhunywe embotsheni yekhompyutha enesivinini esigcwele).Nakuba amahabhu anesivinini esiphezulu angaxhumana ngazo zonke izivinini zedivayisi, ithrafikhi enesivinini esiphansi nesigcwele iyahlanganiswa futhi ihlukaniswe nethrafikhi yesivinini esikhulu ngomhumushi wokwenziwe.Umhumushi ngamunye wokwenziwe uhlukanisa ithrafikhi enesivinini esiphansi endaweni yakhe yokubhukuda, ngokuyisisekelo adale ibhasi elibonakalayo elinesivinini esigcwele.Eminye imiklamo isebenzisa umhumushi oyedwa wokwenziwayo (STT), kuyilapho eminye imiklamo inabahumushi abaningi (MTT).Ukuba nabahumushi abaningi kuyinzuzo enkulu lapho umuntu exhuma amadivayisi amaningi anesivinini esigcwele somkhawulokudonsa ophezulu.

Kuwukucatshangelwa okubalulekile ukuthi ngolimi oluvamile (futhi ngokuvamile ukumaketha komkhiqizo), i-USB 2.0 isetshenziswa njengokufana nesivinini esikhulu.Kodwa-ke, ngenxa yokuthi imininingwane ye-USB 2.0, eyethula isivinini esikhulu, ihlanganisa ukucaciswa kwe-USB 1.1 njengokuthi idivayisi ye-USB 2.0 ayidingeki ukuthi isebenze ngesivinini esikhulu, noma iyiphi idivayisi ethobelayo enesivinini esigcwele noma enesivinini esiphansi ingase ibhalwe ukuthi Idivayisi ye-USB 2.0.Ngakho, akuwona wonke amahabhu e-USB 2.0 asebenza ngesivinini esikhulu.

I-USB 3.0inguqulo yesithathu enkulu yezinga le-Universal Serial Bus (USB) lokuxhumanisa amakhompuyutha nezinto zikagesi.Phakathi kokunye ukuthuthukiswa, i-USB 3.0 yengeza izinga lokudlulisa elisha elibizwa ngeSuperSpeedI-USB (SS) engadlulisa idatha kufika ku-5 Gbit/s (625 MB/s), okusho ukuthi ngokushesha okuphindwe izikhathi ezingu-10 kunezinga le-USB 2.0.Kunconywa ukuthi abakhiqizi bahlukanise izixhumi ze-USB 3.0 kozakwabo be-USB 2.0 ngokusebenzisa okuluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka (i-Pantone 300C) kuma-Standard-A receptacles namapulaki,[4] nangombhalo wokuqala we-SS.

I-USB 3.1, ekhishwe ngoJulayi 2013, iyindinganiso elandelayo ethatha indawo yezinga le-USB 3.0.I-USB 3.1 igcina izinga lokudlulisa iSuperSpeed ​​​​esikhona kakade, isinika ilebula entsha ye-USB 3.1 Gen 1, kuyilapho ichaza imodi yokudlulisa ye-SuperSpeed+ entsha, ebizwa nge-USB 3.1 Gen 2 engadlulisa idatha kufika ku-10 Gbit/s ngokusebenzisa uhlobo olukhona lwe-USB- Izixhumi ze-A ne-USB-C (1250 MB/s, isilinganiso esiphindwe kabili se-USB 3.0).
I-USB 3.2, ekhishwe ngoSepthemba 2017, ingena esikhundleni sezinga le-USB 3.1.Ilondoloza amamodi edatha e-USB 3.1 SuperSpeed ​​​​kanye ne-SuperSpeed+ futhi yethula izindlela zokudlulisa ezimbili ze-SuperSpeed+phezu kwesixhumi se-USB-C kusetshenziswa izindlela ezimbili, ngamanani edatha angu-10 no-20 Gbit/s (1250 no-2500 MB/s).

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Iphrothokholi

Ihabhu ngalinye linembobo eyodwa ncamashi ekhuphuka nomfula kanye nenani lamachweba angezansi komfula.Imbobo ekhuphuka nomfula ixhuma ihabhu (ngokuqondile noma ngamanye amahabhu) kumsingathi.Amanye amahabhu noma izisetshenziswa zinganamathiselwa ezimbobeni ezingezansi komfula.Ngesikhathi sokudlulisa okuvamile, amahabhu abonakala ngale: idatha etholwe kusukela echwebeni layo eliphezulu isakazwa kuwo wonke amadivaysi anamathiselwe kumachweba ayo aphansi komfula (ichazwe ngesithombe ekucacisweni kwe-USB 2.0 kuMfanekiso 11- 2, Ukuxhumana Kokusayina Kwehabhu).Idatha etholwe embobeni engezansi yomfula ngokuvamile idluliselwa embobeni ekhuphuka nomfula kuphela.Ngale ndlela, okuthunyelwa umsingathi kwamukelwa yiwo wonke amahabhu namadivayisi, futhi lokho okuthunyelwa idivayisi kwamukelwa umsingathi kodwa hhayi amanye amadivaysi (okuhlukile ukuphinda uqalise ukusayinda).Umzila osuka emfuleni ushintshiwe ku-USB 3.0 ngokwengezwa komzila Iphoyinti uye Ephuzwini: Iyunithi yezinhlamvu yomzila ethunyelwe enhlokweni yephakethe ivumela umsingathi we-USB 3.0 ukuthi athumele kuphela iphakethe elihamba ngomfula endaweni eyodwa okuyiwa kuyo, ukuminyana okunciphayo kanye nokusetshenziswa kwamandla.

Amahabhu awabonisi ngale lapho asebenzelana nezinguquko esimweni sezimbobo ezingezansi zomfula, njengokufakwa noma ukukhishwa kwamadivayisi.Ikakhulukazi, uma imbobo engezansi yehabhu ishintsha isimo, lolu shintsho kusingathwa ngalo ekusebenzelaneni phakathi komsingathi nale hubhu;nganoma yimaphi amahabhu phakathi komsingathi kanye "nehabhu eshintshiwe" esebenza njengokusobala.

Kulokhu, ihabhu ngalinye linephoyinti lokugcina eliphazamisayo elithi "1 IN" (ikheli lephoyinti lokugcina 1, isiqondiso sehabhu ukuya kumsingathi) elisetshenziselwa ukusayina izinguquko esimweni sezimbobo ezingezansi zomfula.Uma othile exhuma idivayisi, ihabhu ithola i-voltage ku-D+ noma ku-D- futhi isayine ukufakwa kumsingathi ngale ndawo yokugcina ephazamisayo.Uma umsingathi ephenya lesi siphetho esiphazamisayo, ufunda ukuthi idivayisi entsha isikhona.Bese iyala ihabhu (ngepayipi lokulawula elizenzakalelayo) ukuthi isethe kabusha imbobo lapho idivayisi entsha ixhunywe khona. Lokhu kusetha kabusha kwenza idivayisi entsha ithathe ikheli elingu-0, futhi umsingathi angakwazi ukusebenzisana nalo ngokuqondile;lokhu kuxhumana kuzoholela ekutheni umsingathi abele ikheli elisha (elingelona uziro) kudivayisi.

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Umhumushi wokwenziwe

Noma iyiphi ihabhu ye-USB 2.0 esekela izinga eliphezulu kune-USB 1.1 (12 Mbit/s) izohumusha phakathi kwezinga eliphansi nezinga eliphezulu kusetshenziswa lokho okubizwa ngokuthi umhumushi wokwenziwayo (TT).Isibonelo, uma idivayisi ye-USB 1.1 ixhumeke embobeni kuhabhu le-USB 2.0, i-TT izobona ngokuzenzakalela futhi ihumushe amasiginali we-USB 1.1 kuya ku-USB 2.0 kusixhumanisi esingenhla.Kodwa-ke, idizayini ezenzakalelayo iwukuthi zonke izisetshenziswa ezisezingeni eliphansi zabelana ngomhumushi ofanayo wokwenziwe futhi ngaleyo ndlela zidale ibhodlela, ukucushwa okwaziwa ngokuthi umhumushi oyedwa wokwenziwe.Ngakho-ke, kwakhiwe abahumushi bemisebenzi eminingi (Multi- TT), okuhlinzeka abahumushi abaningi bemisebenzi ngendlela yokuthi kugwenywe izinkinga.Qaphela ukuthi amahabhu e-USB 3.0 okwamanje awenzi umsebenzi wokuhumusha ukuya kusivinini esikhulu samadivayisi e-USB 2.0.

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Idizayini ye-elekthronikhi

Amahabhu amaningi e-USB asebenzisa isilawuli esihlanganisiwe esisodwa noma eziningi (ama-IC), lapho imiklamo eminingana itholakala kubakhiqizi abahlukahlukene.Iningi lisekela uhlelo lwamahabhu amachweba amane, kodwa amahabhu asebenzisa izilawuli zamahabhu angama-16 nawo ayatholakala embonini.Ibhasi le-USB livumela amachweba angama-cascading ayisikhombisa.Ihabhu lempande iyisigaba sokuqala, kanti okokugcina akusigaba sesikhombisa, okuvumela ama-hubs anenani eli-5 phakathi kwawo.Inombolo enkulu yamadivayisi wabasebenzisi incishiswa ngenani lamahabhu.Ngamahabhu angama-50 anamathiselwe, inombolo ephezulu ngu-127− 50 = 77.

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Amahabhu aphambene noma okwabelana (KVM)

Okunye okutholakalayo "amahabhu okwabelana", okuyizinto ezingemuva kwehabhu le-USB, okuvumela ama-PC amaningana ukuthi afinyelele (imvamisa) i-peripheral eyodwa.Kungaba ngezandla, kube yibhokisi lokushintshisana elilula, noma okuzenzakalelayo, okuhlanganisa indlela ebona ukuthi iyiphi ikhompuyutha efisa ukusebenzisa i-peripheral futhi ishintshe ngokufanele.Abakwazi ukunikeza ukufinyelela kwe-PC engaphezu kweyodwa ngesikhathi esisodwa.Amanye amamodeli, nokho, anamandla okulawula ama-peripheral amaningi ngokuhlukana (isb, ama-PC amabili nama-peripherals amane, anikeza ukufinyelela ngokuhlukana).Ukushintsha okulula kuvame ukuzenzakalela, futhi lesi sici ngokuvamile sibeka endaweni yenani eliphezulu futhi.Izishintshi zesimanje "zekhibhodi, ividiyo kanye negundane" (i-KVM) nazo zingabelana ngamadivaysi e-USB phakathi kwamakhompyutha ambalwa.


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